Contrastive Representation Learning

The goal of contrastive representation learning is to learn such an embedding space in which similar sample pairs stay close to each other while dissimilar ones are far apart. Contrastive learning can be applied to both supervised and unsupervised settings. When working with unsupervised data, contrastive learning is one of the most powerful approaches in self-supervised learning. Contrastive Training Objectives In early versions of loss functions for contrastive learning, only one positive and one negative sample are involved....

May 31, 2021 · 39 min · Lilian Weng

Controllable Neural Text Generation

[Updated on 2021-02-01: Updated to version 2.0 with several work added and many typos fixed.] [Updated on 2021-05-26: Add P-tuning and Prompt Tuning in the “prompt design” section.] [Updated on 2021-09-19: Add “unlikelihood training”.] There is a gigantic amount of free text on the Web, several magnitude more than labelled benchmark datasets. The state-of-the-art language models (LM) are trained with unsupervised Web data in large scale. When generating samples from LM by iteratively sampling the next token, we do not have much control over attributes of the output text, such as the topic, the style, the sentiment, etc....

January 2, 2021 · 42 min · Lilian Weng

Exploration Strategies in Deep Reinforcement Learning

[Updated on 2020-06-17: Add “exploration via disagreement” in the “Forward Dynamics” section. Exploitation versus exploration is a critical topic in Reinforcement Learning. We’d like the RL agent to find the best solution as fast as possible. However, in the meantime, committing to solutions too quickly without enough exploration sounds pretty bad, as it could lead to local minima or total failure. Modern RL algorithms that optimize for the best returns can achieve good exploitation quite efficiently, while exploration remains more like an open topic....

June 7, 2020 · 36 min · Lilian Weng

Self-Supervised Representation Learning

[Updated on 2020-01-09: add a new section on Contrastive Predictive Coding]. [Updated on 2020-04-13: add a “Momentum Contrast” section on MoCo, SimCLR and CURL.] [Updated on 2020-07-08: add a “Bisimulation” section on DeepMDP and DBC.] [Updated on 2020-09-12: add MoCo V2 and BYOL in the “Momentum Contrast” section.] [Updated on 2021-05-31: remove section on “Momentum Contrast” and add a pointer to a full post on “Contrastive Representation Learning”]...

November 10, 2019 · 38 min · Lilian Weng

Generalized Language Models

[Updated on 2019-02-14: add ULMFiT and GPT-2.] [Updated on 2020-02-29: add ALBERT.] [Updated on 2020-10-25: add RoBERTa.] [Updated on 2020-12-13: add T5.] [Updated on 2020-12-30: add GPT-3.] [Updated on 2021-11-13: add XLNet, BART and ELECTRA; Also updated the Summary section.] Fig. 0. I guess they are Elmo & Bert? (Image source: here) We have seen amazing progress in NLP in 2018. Large-scale pre-trained language modes like OpenAI GPT and BERT have achieved great performance on a variety of language tasks using generic model architectures....

January 31, 2019 · 36 min · Lilian Weng