## How to Train Really Large Models on Many GPUs?

[Updated on 2022-03-13: add expert choice routing.] [Updated on 2022-06-10]: Greg and I wrote a shorted and upgraded version of this post, published on OpenAI Blog: “Techniques for Training Large Neural Networks” In recent years, we are seeing better results on many NLP benchmark tasks with larger pre-trained language models. How to train large and deep neural networks is challenging, as it demands a large amount of GPU memory and a long horizon of training time....

September 24, 2021 · 21 min · Lilian Weng

## Neural Architecture Search

Although most popular and successful model architectures are designed by human experts, it doesn’t mean we have explored the entire network architecture space and settled down with the best option. We would have a better chance to find the optimal solution if we adopt a systematic and automatic way of learning high-performance model architectures. Automatically learning and evolving network topologies is not a new idea (Stanley & Miikkulainen, 2002). In recent years, the pioneering work by Zoph & Le 2017 and Baker et al....

August 6, 2020 · 32 min · Lilian Weng

## The Transformer Family

It has been almost two years since my last post on attention. Recent progress on new and enhanced versions of Transformer motivates me to write another post on this specific topic, focusing on how the vanilla Transformer can be improved for longer-term attention span, less memory and computation consumption, RL task solving and more. Notations Symbol Meaning $d$ The model size / hidden state dimension / positional encoding size....

April 7, 2020 · 25 min · Lilian Weng

## Generalized Language Models

[Updated on 2019-02-14: add ULMFiT and GPT-2.] [Updated on 2020-02-29: add ALBERT.] [Updated on 2020-10-25: add RoBERTa.] [Updated on 2020-12-13: add T5.] [Updated on 2020-12-30: add GPT-3.] [Updated on 2021-11-13: add XLNet, BART and ELECTRA; Also updated the Summary section.] Fig. 0. I guess they are Elmo & Bert? (Image source: here) We have seen amazing progress in NLP in 2018. Large-scale pre-trained language modes like OpenAI GPT and BERT have achieved great performance on a variety of language tasks using generic model architectures....

January 31, 2019 · 36 min · Lilian Weng

## Flow-based Deep Generative Models

So far, I’ve written about two types of generative models, GAN and VAE. Neither of them explicitly learns the probability density function of real data, $p(\mathbf{x})$ (where $\mathbf{x} \in \mathcal{D}$) — because it is really hard! Taking the generative model with latent variables as an example, $p(\mathbf{x}) = \int p(\mathbf{x}\vert\mathbf{z})p(\mathbf{z})d\mathbf{z}$ can hardly be calculated as it is intractable to go through all possible values of the latent code $\mathbf{z}$. Flow-based deep generative models conquer this hard problem with the help of normalizing flows, a powerful statistics tool for density estimation....

October 13, 2018 · 21 min · Lilian Weng

## Attention? Attention!

[Updated on 2018-10-28: Add Pointer Network and the link to my implementation of Transformer.] [Updated on 2018-11-06: Add a link to the implementation of Transformer model.] [Updated on 2018-11-18: Add Neural Turing Machines.] [Updated on 2019-07-18: Correct the mistake on using the term “self-attention” when introducing the show-attention-tell paper; moved it to Self-Attention section.] [Updated on 2020-04-07: A follow-up post on improved Transformer models is here.] Attention is, to some extent, motivated by how we pay visual attention to different regions of an image or correlate words in one sentence....

June 24, 2018 · 21 min · Lilian Weng